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SampleHemisphere is not uniform
The current SampleHemisphere function does not generate points distributed uniformly on the hemisphere: Here's an efficient way to generate uniform samples on the unit sphere attributed to Marsaglia (1972).

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 internal v3 SampleSphere(random_series *Series) { v3 Result = {}; f32 X1, X2, SquaresSum, SquareRootTerm; do { X1 = RandomBilateral(Series); X2 = RandomBilateral(Series); SquaresSum = Square(X1) + Square(X2); } while (SquaresSum >= 1.0f); SquareRootTerm = 2*SquareRoot(1 - SquaresSum); Result.x = X1*SquareRootTerm; Result.y = X2*SquareRootTerm; Result.z = 1 - 2*SquaresSum; return(Result); } 

You can flip the sample's position according to its dot product with a normal as before.
Andrew Bromage
183 posts / 1 project
Research engineer, resident maths nerd (Erdős number 3).
SampleHemisphere is not uniform
Here's a method which involves no loops, due to Archimedes (225 BCE). The idea is to randomly sample the enclosed cylinder then map that onto the sphere or hemisphere.

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 internal v3 SampleHemisphere(random_series *Series) { v3 Result = {}; f32 z = RandomBilateral(Series); f32 r = SquareRoot(1 - z*z); f32 theta = RandomBilateral(Series) * 2 * PI; Result.x = r * Cos(theta); Result.y = r * Sin(theta); Result.z = z; return (Result); } 

However, you probably don't actually want to sample the hemisphere uniformly; for light transport, you probably want to include the geometric cosine factor. The easiest way to do this is to randomly sample the unit disk, then map that onto a hemisphere sitting above it.

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 internal v3 CosineSampleHemisphere(random_series *Series) { v3 Result = {}; f32 r2 = RandomBilateral(Series); f32 r = SquareRoot(r2); f32 theta = RandomBilateral(Series) * 2 * PI; f32 z = SquareRoot(1 - r2); Result.x = r * Cos(theta); Result.y = r * Sin(theta); Result.z = z; return (Result); }